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 Teacher: Tony Whittingham
unit: CUFMEM08A
Unit/subject purpose:
This unit describes the skills and knowledge required for incorporating the principles of instructional design in the development of multimedia products for use within a website application.





What is Instructional Design                                       

OVERVIEW: An instructional designer is in charge of the educational design of multimedia projects. He or she essentially drafts a blueprint for a whole project - from determining the content of the project to deciding how to present the content to the learner. Knowledge of instructional design is increasingly becoming a part of the job description of a variety of occupations where there is an involvement in helping people to learn better, from training to sales support. Instructional Design is the process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

1. Describe the role of an instructional designer.

2. Design and develop an electronic autobiography that includes an interactive component.

1. Complete the 'Getting Started' activities that include design your autobiography.


The need for instructional design is being noticed in both corporate training departments and education institutions.
A course on Instructional Design with excellent resources
What do Instructional Designers is a list of their required competencies and skills:
A history of instructional design


What are the potential benefits from using digital media to deliver instruction?

Lesson2                                                                                               return to menu

Information versus Instruction                         

OVERVIEW: In the early days of training using digital media (DMT), there was an initial rush to pour content into electronic tutorials. A few innovative designers made the most of the limited media and created engaging simulations, quizzes, even games. But this was the exception to the rule, and most learners were forced to passively read the text on the screen, clicking the space bar to move on. These types of programs, derisively known as page turners, tainted the image of DMT for many years.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

i) Design and implement a Blog website for recording and sharing information on instructional design.

ii) Differentiate between websites that provide information and websites that provide interactive instruction .

Create your personal website Blog.

2. Complete this online instruction 'Introduction to Instructional Systems Development (ISD)' at:
It will take approximately 30 minutes to complete the lesson and the multiple choice quiz and crossword puzzle. This lesson was designed by an Instructional Designer. What other skills have been applied in developing the lesson.


"How to  Develop An Online Course" tutorial (recommended)

Why, in the Information Age, do our biggest problems all have to do with information?
Information is not instruction
This article "The Art of UI Prototyping" is highly recommended. 


What are the differences between an information website and an instructional website?

Lesson3                                                                                           return to menu

Prototype Development

OVERVIEW: Prototyping is a means of exploring ideas before you invest in them. All experienced designers and developers create prototypes of their work before they build anything.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Use PowerPoint to develop a functional prototype for an online tutorial.

ACTIVITIES: Develop PowerPoint prototypes for the 'Typography' and 'Art Gallery' online tutorials.


Using Paper Prototypes for a Cleaner, More Functional Web Site 

Software and Web designers create mock-ups of how users will interact with their designs.

The rapid prototype creates an early iteration loop that provides valuable feedback on technical issues, creative treatment, and effectiveness of instruction.

What are the advantages of using prototypes and what methods can be used for prototyping?

Lesson4                                                                                             return to menu

The ADDIE Instructional Design Model

OVERVIEW: There are many ISD models, but almost all are based on the generic "ADDIE" model, which stands for Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation. Each step has an outcome that feeds the subsequent step. The ADDIE model provides designers with the necessary structure for designing online training, regardless of the instructional methods employed.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Describe the steps and processes in the ADDIE instructional design model.

ACTIVITIES: Refer the class handouts “Application of the ADDIE Model”


Review these note on the ADDIE model:

Review examples that demonstrate a range of online instructional techniques
 Note: Go to 'Online Learning Types'
 ADDIE model…a detailed description
 Intro to the ADDIE model

ISD Models are visualized representations of an instructional design process, showing the main elements or phases, and their relationships.


What are the benefits from using a model for instructional design.

Lesson5                                                                                                return to menu

The Analysis Phase - What the client needs

OVERVIEW: The analysis phase looks not only at the tasks being performed, but also at other parts of the system that might yield clues at what might be done to provide or improve training. During the analysis phase you may review information about the people who will use the program (called the audience), the work they do or will perform (called their tasks), and/or the information or products they deal with or produce (called the content).

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to,

for a client’s brief, list and describe a range of tools and methods for analyzing the instruction needs and characteristics of the intended audience.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handouts “The Analysis Phase”

REFERENCES: Refer the Analysis sections at this site:

 New Research-Based Web Design and Usability Guidelines. An excellent series of 'chapters' on all aspects of website design.


What skills are required to complete a needs and audience analysis.

Lesson6                                                                                                 return to menu

Information Architecture and Content Organisation

OVERVIEW: Content is the most important part of a website. If the content does not provide the information needed by learners the website will provide little value no matter how easy it is to use the site. At the beginning of any web site design exercise, it is normal to be confronted by a very long list of topics to include. The challenge is to organise these topics in a way that is useful and meaningful for the users of the site.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Apply the card sorting technique when developing the information architecture for an instructional design project.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handouts “Content Organisation”


Card sorting is a quick, inexpensive, and reliable method, which serves as input into your information design process. Card sorting generates an overall structure for your information, as well as suggestions for navigation, menus, and possible taxonomies.

Content is the most important part of a website. If the content does not provide the information needed by learners the website will provide little value no matter how easy it is to use the site.
Reading Content: A Comparison of Four White Space Layouts
To examine the effects of white space on reading content, this study compared four white space layouts that manipulated margins and leading.
 Card sorting sessions are an important opportunity to involve the actual users in the design process. This makes them feel involved in the project, and emphasises that the end product will be built to meet their needs.
The EZSort tool helps interface designers organize information based on users' expectations using statistical cluster analysis. This tool includes two packages — USort and EZCalc. The USort program can be used by card sort participants to sort virtual cards with a simple GUI interface, instead of using physical cards.


Provide examples of good and bad content organization.

 Lesson7                                                                                            return to menu

Metaphors, Storyboards and Navigation Charts

OVERVIEW: Metaphors are ubiquitous in the user interfaces of today’s computers. Your choice of a metaphor (theme) will determine, in large part, how your pages will evolve and what degree of detail may be necessary in developing them. Some examples of metaphors might be, a garage (like that in use by the web site garage), an art gallery, a factory, bakery, jukebox, or just about anything you can imagine.
If you are developing a product learning application, your metaphor might focus on the type of product offered An example might be a lesson that features cameras and photography equipment. The background of the lesson might look like a strip of film. The icons for navigating throughout the lesson may consist of tiny cameras (or a camera, roll of film, flash bulb, photograph, and photo album

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Select/develop and apply a metaphor to assist the navigation of an online tutorial.


i) Refer to the class handouts “Use of Metaphors in Instructional Design”
ii) View the pdf version of PowerPoint slides

iii) Download and complete the "Metaphor for a Typography Lesson" exercise


Excellent example of the use of a metaphor to add interest and assist navigation - Note the metaphor of using a map to aid discovery of, in this case knowledge.

 Regardless of chosen media, it is generally a good idea to outline your instructional materials prior to production. These outlines may take many forms from storyboards to content organisation and  navigation charts.

The script or storyboard is simply a screen-by-screen description of what students will see, hear, and do when running the program. Once the designer completes the script, it becomes the guidebook for all other team members: artists, audio/video producers, and programmers.

 Flowcharts and storyboards save time and money by keeping the project focused and organized. The quality of a project is enhanced by having a detailed plan to follow.


What are the advantages from using a metaphor in website development?

  Lesson8                                                                                                return to menu

The Client’s Brief – Requirements Analysis

OVERVIEW: Requirements analysis is the data-gathering element of instructional design. Here instructional designers assemble all the information they can possibly gather about the project before they consider anything else. Decisions about every aspect of the project must eventually be made. The information that instructional designers gather at this stage will be put to use throughout the system, so it is necessary that they have every scrap of data to ensure the design will be successful..

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:
Describe range of methods and tools for completing a requirements analysis for an instructional design project.

Review the Flash introduction at It's an introduction to online learning (eLearning) and although it is intended for journalists 'the rules' apply to all instructional design projects.

2. Complete a requirements analysis for a client's brief


A detailed understanding of your target audience provides you with an effective metric by which to evaluate all your design decisions
To design a site that works for you and your intended audience, you have to know a lot about those people.

Effective Questioning Techniques
The Audience Is the End... What About the Beginning?


What are potential barriers to defining a client’s requirements?

  Lesson9                                                                                                  return to menu

The Design Phase - Learning styles

OVERVIEW: Instructional Design is the systematic process of translating general principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials and learning. "Learning style" denotes the typical ways in which a person takes in and processes information, makes decisions, and forms values. Instruction can be designed for a range of learning styles.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Describe three different learning styles and describe techniques for designing instruction for a preferred learning style.

ACTIVITIES: Go to to determine your preferred learning style and refer to the class handouts “Application of Learning Styles”.


Instruction can be designed for a range of learning styles.

Learning styles

 An introduction to adult learning


What techniques can be used to develop instruction for a range of learning styles?

 Lesson10                                                                                               return to menu

Application of the ARCS Model

OVERVIEW: Motivation is the most overlooked aspect of instructional strategy, and perhaps the most critical element needed for employee-learners. Even the most elegantly designed training program will fail if the students are not motivated to learn.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Describe the components of the ARCS model and design instruction based on the ARCS model

ACTIVITIES: Re-design of a mini tutorial on the ARCS model. The tutorial to re-design is at:


Even the most elegantly designed training program will fail if the students are not motivated to learn.

Tips on how to apply the ARCS model. Use this for your exercise.


How can motivation be achieved via a website?


Using Video for Instruction

OVERVIEW: The integration of video in blogs (v-blogging) can enhance blog functions generally and particularly the presentation of instruction. Windows Movie Maker makes integrating video and sound into blogs (and websites) amazingly easy. With Movie Maker, you can transform and compress your digital camera videos into 'movies' for uploading to your blog, build your movie with a few simple drag-and-drops, delete bad shots and include only the best scenes.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:
Create an instructional movie for a blog using Windows Movie Maker. The movie will focus on the use of a product and will include your summary of the product’s functions and a video clip of the product (e.g. flash drive, mobile phone, mp3 player etc.) identifying its main parts. The movie will also include title slides and transitions between the video clips and music background.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class instructions for 'Video Production'.


Tutorials and videos on using Movie Maker
Microsoft's 'Getting Started with Movie Maker'
A blog about vblogging with links to vblogs
Interesting, cool and worth a look...Rocketboom is a three minute daily video weblog based in New York City covering information and commentary ranging from top news stories to quirky internet culture. Agenda includes releasing each new clip at 9am EST, Monday through Friday. With a heavy emphasis on international arts, technology and weblog drama, Rocketboom is presented via online video and widely distributed through RSS.


How can businesses creatively apply vblogging technology for training?


Lesson12                                                                                          return to menu

Learning Theories - Behaviourism  and Constructivism

OVERVIEW:  Constructivism assumes that all learning is conscious and what we need to do is engage the learner in a learning adventure; behaviorism assumes, on the contrary, that it is unconscious and involuntary and that what we need to do is structure the environment in such a fashion that the student would in time emit a desired behavior.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Contrast the behaviourist and constructivist approaches to instructional design.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handout “Redesign of a Behaviourist Tutorial”


Article on learning theories

A look at adult education wouldn't be complete without a view of the theories shaping the way we learn and the way we teach.


Why is knowledge of learning theories important for an instructional designer?


Lesson13                                                                                             return to menu

Nine Events of Instruction – Robert Gagne

OVERVIEW: Robert Gagne is considered to be the foremost researcher and contributor to the systematic approach to instructional design and training. Gagne and his followers are known as behaviorists, and their focus is on the outcomes - or behaviors - that result from training.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Describe Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction and provide examples of the application of each event in instructional design.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handout “Application of the Nine Events”


Go to 'Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction'

Review the application of Gagne's model in the lesson 'The Adventure of Echo the Bat' at

go to the 'Lesson Plan' section.

A study released by the University of California Irvine, demonstrates that music can serve as a stimulus, reinforcing pathways in the brain and resulting in an increased score on I.Q. tests.
Review these articles on music and learning.

Free MP3 Mozart music clips for inclusion in your online learning projects.

Encouraging Creativity in Online Courses

Instructional Design and Learning Theory


What are the benefits of applying Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction?

Lesson14                                                                                                return to menu

Planning and Scheduling Instructional Design Projects


OVERVIEW: Gantt Charts are useful tools for analyzing and planning instructional design projects. They:
>>Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed
>>Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carries out
>>Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project, and
>>Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date.
When a project is under way, Gantt charts help you to monitor whether the project is on schedule. If it is not, it allows you to pinpoint the remedial action necessary to put it back on schedule.


OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Develop a Gantt Chart for an instructional design project.


ACTIVITIES: For the development of an online simulation using the ADDIE model, draw a simplified GANTT chart to illustrate your time estimates for each of the model’s stages.



BaseCamp is a web based project management tool that is excellent for web development projects.....try the free version that allows you to manage one project.

Gantt Charts are useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects

This is a very comprehensive list of instructional design models pointing to resources, writings and home pages for each model.
Instructional models organize combinations of instructional strategy components
 and integrate them to produce a course of instruction. Effective instructional models are based on learning theories. Learning Theories describe the ways that theorists believe people  learn new ideas and concepts.



What are alternatives to using a Gantt Chart for monitoring the development of instruction?


Lesson15                                                                                                return to menu

Evaluation methods for online instruction


OVERVIEW: The key to Web site usability is ensuring that the site is both useful and usable for the intended audience. Unfortunately, Web site design and development is often driven by technology or by organizational structure or business objectives, rather than by user needs. In recent years however, Web site owners and developers have gradually begun to acknowledge and address the issue of usability.



OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Develop, observe and document the results of a usability test for a hypothetical client's instructional program.



ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handouts “Evaluation of Online Instruction”




Usability article

"There are about 43 million Web sites, and no one knows which ones are usable. The best sites we've found are usable only 42 percent of the time, and none that we have studied are usable a majority of the time ...."
The criteria presented in this guide are based on the national and international experiences of staff in the Instructional Media and Design department at Grant MacEwan College.  




Compare various methods for evaluating online instruction.



Lesson16                                                                                                return to menu

eLearning Case Studies

OVERVIEW: An examination of real world case studies can provide valuable information and guidelines for future development projects

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Provide guidelines for developing and/or applying elearning from a study of a ‘real world’ case study.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handout “eLearning Case Study Review”


These are some case studies of the use of e-learning within organisations: corporate and governmental.


Present the results of your case study

Lesson17                                                                                               return to menu

Class presentation of Major Projects

Writing and Testing Instructional Objectives

OVERVIEW: Robert Mager's work on instructional objectives shapes the vast majority of corporate training programs developed today. Mager argued for the use of specific, measurable objectives that both guide designers during courseware development and aid students in the learning process.

OBJECTIVES: You will be able to:

Write instructional objectives for training goals.

ACTIVITIES: Refer to the class handouts “Writing and Testing Objectives”


Writing instructional objectives

Interactive questions (IQ) give learners immediate feedback and self-evaluation on small amounts of information. IQs are embedded in your courseware.  IQs are usually only used for formative testing to guide the progress of learners.

An ebook on writing multiple choice questions

Tips for writing multiple choice questions


How do clearly written objectives assist the instructional designer?


Lesson18                                                                                               return to menu

Revision and Future Trend in Instructional Design

Assessment                                                                                          return to menu

 Grade Code:   72 
* This is a Category D assessment.
* Student Records requires a Class Mark only.
* The Class Mark is locally set and locally marked.
* Results are reported as DISTINCTION, CREDIT, PASS, FAIL.
DISTINCTION        >= 83
CREDIT                >= 70
PASS                   >= 50
All other cases FAIL
Assessment Events:
In addition to an overall pass in the module, students must pass each assessment
event where there is a "yes" in the "must pass" column.





 Must Pass



 1 - 6    




Download a copy of the major project assessment guidelines


Assessment Events' Comments:
The aim of this assessment is to enable you demonstrate your ability to
incorporate the principles of instructional design in the development of
multimedia products for use within a Webpage/site.
Your project assessment may consist of several parts such as:
    · Practical work
    · Assignments
    · Observations
    · Tests
You should demonstrate your ability to present and organise information for
educational and learning purposes that shows your understanding of a range of
software for on-line learning and exhibits your communication skills.

Your assessment should provide evidence that you are able to perform the
assessment criteria within each learning outcome. This may include (but is not
limited to):
    · Clearly understanding the brief from an instructional design perspective
    · Developing a range of multimedia options to use
    · Researching ways to implement the options
    · Selecting appropriate material
    · Using visual design techniques effectively
    · Ensuring that the final product satisfies the requirements of the design

Subject Details                                                                           return to menu

Learning Outcome No.1

On completion, the learner should be able to receive and interpret the brief for the instructional design project.
 1.1 Liaise with the relevant personnel to interpret and identify the objective and learning outcomes of the instructional product, ensuring the creative, technical and production requirements of the brief can be met.
 1.2 Identify all relevant factors which may determine and affect the instructional design through the breakdown and interpretation of the brief and liaison with relevant personnel.
 1.3 Clarify target user/audience to determine the format and delivery platform of the instructional product through discussion with relevant personnel.

Learning Outcome No.2

On completion, the learner should be able to generate and assess ideas.
 2.1 Generate a range of ideas for the instructional design which are technically feasible, respond to the brief and provide creative solutions to all design issues.
 2.2 Discuss ideas and collaborate, as required, with relevant personnel to ensure contribution of a range of ideas and creative solutions to the initial concept.
 2.3 Continuously reflect on and assess the creative ideas and solutions for implications on budget, timeline, technical feasibility, and suitability to meet the brief.

Learning Outcome No.3

On completion, the learner should be able to conduct research.
 3.1 Research the range of instructional approaches that reflect the requirements of the brief and may influence the overall design development.
 3.2 Organise research media and findings for use by all relevant personnel throughout the design development process, updating as required.
 3.3 Evaluate the initial discussions and design brief against the findings and discuss with relevant personnel

Learning Outcome No.4

On completion, the learner should be able to select an instructional design model.
 4.1 Identify a range of instructional design models, considering their characteristics, differences and ability to meet the brief.
 4.2 Consult with relevant personnel to ensure that the full range of models have been identified and sourced.
 4.3 Select the instructional design model which fulfils the creative, technical, and production requirements of the brief.
 4.4 Ensure that selection is based on an understanding of the user characteristics and capabilities.

Learning Outcome No.5

On completion, the learner should be able to plan and compose the instructional product.
 5.1 Using selected instructional design techniques to compose the structure of the product, ensuring that all elements are fully documented for future use.
 5.2 Plan content, sequence and interactivity of learning activities to be included according to technical, creative and production requirements.
 5.3 Determine the relevant multimedia elements necessary to construct the product.
 5.4 Discuss technical parameters and planning with relevant personnel to achieve the most appropriate format.
 5.5 Determine the range of appropriate design parameters and employ these to fulfil the brief, ensuring the creative, technical and production resources are adequate to achieve the final outcome.

Learning Outcome No.6

On completion, the learner should be able to evaluate instructional strategies and materials.
 6.1 Review instructional product to assess the application of creative solutions to the design brief, the technical feasibility and its appropriateness to the user/audience.
 6.2 Discuss and confirm additional requirements or modifications to the instructional design and undertake any necessary amendments.

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